The Authentication Module

exception clortho.auth.ActivationError[source]
class clortho.auth.UserBase(email)[source]

The UserBase class subclasses sqlalchemy’s default declarative base to provide a schema for basic user authentication. UserBase provides fields and methods for setting and checking a password, generating and checking an activation code, and disabling the user entirely. The email field is unique.

This class cannot be used on its own. In order to use this class in your application, subclass it and define the __tablename__ attribute.

Parameters:emailRequired. The user’s email address. Validity as an email address is not enforced; any string will be allowed.

Create a new UserBase object. By default, password_is_set, disabled, and activated are all initialized to False.

Parameters:activation_code_plaintext – The activation code to check. If its hash matches activation_code_hash, the user will be activated.

Take the plaintext activation code that was sent to the user, generally via e-mail. Hash the plaintext and compare it against activation_code_hash. If they are the same, set activated to True. Finally, call generate_activation_code() in order to prevent reactivation of the account using the same code. Since we don’t save the new reactivation code, it is useless. If the account becomes inactive in the future for any reason, generate_activation_code() must be called again in order to reactivate.

If activation fails, an exception is raised and no change is made to the model.

Parameters:password_plaintext – The plaintext of the password to check.

If password_is_set is False or disabled is True, return False. Otherwise, take a plaintext password string and hash it using bcrypt along with the salt for this user. If the resulting hash matches the hash in password_hash, return True. The session can now be considered authenticated for this user.


Generate a 20 character random code from letters and digits. This is the activation code that will be sent to the user (presumably via e-mail) and allow them to activate their account. The actual code is not stored locally; like a password, it is hashed and stored in activation_code_hash. The plaintext activation code is returned to the caller. In order to activate the user with the plaintext activation code, call activate().

Parameters:password_plaintext – The plaintext of the password to set.

Given a plaintext password, generate a salted hash using bcrypt. Set password_is_set to True and password_hash to the generated hash. The user can now be authenticated with the plain text password and check_password().

activated = Column(None, Boolean(), table=None)

activated is True if the user has completed the e-mail verification process using activation_code_hash.

activation_code_hash = Column(None, String(length=80), table=None)

The activation_code_hash is set to a hash of the activation code that is generated by generate_activation_code() and subsequently e-mailed to the user. This code is immediately forgotten by the application; only the bcrypt hashed version of it is stored in activation_code_hash. The activation code can be checked using activate().

disabled = Column(None, Boolean(), table=None)

Prevent check_password from returning True, regardless of the password supplied.

email = Column(None, Unicode(length=255), table=None)

The user’s email. The uniqueness is enforced at the database level.

id = Column(None, Integer(), table=None, primary_key=True, nullable=False)

The primary key and id which will always be used to reference a user.

password_hash = Column(None, String(length=80), table=None)

The hash of the user’s password, with salt, as generated by bcrypt.

password_is_set = Column(None, Boolean(), table=None)

password_hash might be empty, so we explicitly record whether or not the user has a password set.